Society for Historical Archaeology Style Guide with a few modifications:

SHA Style Guide, December 2011 http://www.sha.org/publications/style_guide.htm 11



Times New Roman 12

Paragraphs not indented, 6 points after

No footnotes, no endnotes: blend the notes into the text.

Use one space between all sentences. Colons will also be followed by one space, except in reference citations where there are no following spaces (1989:102–103).

Use a comma in a series of three or more items (explorers, settlers, and natives) and place all commas and periods inside of the final quotation marks. (He said, “Let’s go.”) (The whole effect, including the “landscape,” was horrible.)

For circa use ca. instead of c.

Numbers: one, two… nine, 10, 15, 21,520, etc. (for A&M Univ Press you use commas to separate ‘thousands).

Italicize terminus post quem (beginning); terminus ante quem (end); words in native languages, such as mako sica (mako, land); in situ; etc.

Italicize names of ships: whaler Alta California, British frigate HMS Orpheus, Union vessel USS Monitor.

Italicize the taxonomic genus, species, and variety of scientific names: humans (Homo sapiens sapiens), white oak (Quercus alba), but oak (Quercus sp.). Other taxa (family, order, etc.) are not italicized.

Use quotations between “ “. Example: As Sullivan (1978:184) stated, “archaeologists must develop a rigorous model that specifies how information about the past is transmitted to the present via material remains [emphasis added].”



  1. Cite all figures in the text and give all figures a caption.
  2. Number all captions sequentially in Arabic numerals (2.1. for Figure 1 of Chapter 2) in the order cited in the text;
  3. Date and attribute all figures to a source in the captions, even if the source is “author”; captions for drawings (maps, schematics, charts, etc.) and photos must include a date along with the source: (Drawing by author, 1982.)


FIGURE 1. Detail of 1807 map of Boston. (Courtesy of the Harvard Map Collection, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.)

FIGURE 2. Faience ointment-jar forms (Brain 1979:35).

FIGURE 3. Beads and pendant from the cemetery: (a) gilded bead; (b) pendant; (c) faceted amber bead; and (d–f) plain drawn beads. (Photo by author, 2004.)

FIGURE 4. Left and bottom, thermometer backplates; upper right, balance scale weights. (Photo by author, 2004.)

FIGURE 5. Gunflints from the Smyth site. (Photo by Ned Johnston; courtesy of the London Historical Commission, London, Ontario.)



Cite every table in the text. Examples: Glass comprised 34% (Table 1); As provided in Table 2.1. (as in Table 1 of Chapter 2).

Introduce the table in the text in all caps:



Use “insert table” from Word for Windows



All measurements in the International System: cm, m, km, etc.



Use scientific or military style for all dates. “He was born on 19 July 1889.”

Decades: 1860s and 1870s, not 1860’s and ’70’s.

Fully cite inclusive years using an en dash, not a hyphen (1774–1778); do not shorten the century (1774–78). Always use from with to when referring to a range of dates (from 1850 to 1860); do not combine words and symbols (from 1850–1860).

Eras: B.C. follows dates (2000 B.C.); A.D. precedes dates (A.D. 2000). There is no year 0. Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P. (before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C.

Hyphenate century when used as a compound adjective: 19th-century ceramics, early-20th century ceramics, mid-16th century, but ceramics of the 19th century. With decades, use a hyphen with mid (mid-1950s) but not with early or late (early fifties, late 1920s).

Use of B.P. in radiometric ages.



In text:

One author, no page numbers: (Smith 1969); Smith (1969); or Smith’s (1969) discussion, not (see Smith 1969).

Agency as author: Initial citation: (Philadelphia Registry of Deeds [PRD] 1680:1.6.170 [book. leaf. page]), subsequent citation of more than three: (PRD 1680:1.6.170). In the References section include any abbreviations used: Philadelphia Registry of Deeds (PRD).

Two authors: (Little and Shackel 1992) or Little and Shackel (1992).

Three or more authors: (Arnold et al. 1992) or Arnold et al. (1992). List all names in the References section.

Three or more authors with the same senior author, more than one reference: List them chronologically in the text (Olin, Harbottle et al. 1978; Olin, Black et al. 1984); cite them in strict alphabetical order in the References. In the infrequent instances where the first several names of two or more multi-authored works are the same and the publications appeared in the same year, cite them alphabetically both in the text and in the References, as in the following example: (Arnold, Fleshman, Garrison et al. 1991; Arnold, Fleshman, Hill et al. 1991).

Several different authors cited in one place: Use chronological, then alphabetical order: (McKee 1886; Colton 1959; Deetz and Dethlefsen 1965; Deetz 1967, 1973; Brown 1973; Hall 1973).

Several references by the same author: Without pagination: (Hardesty 1985, 1988, 1991a, 1991b) or Hardesty (1985, 1988, 1991a, 1991b). With pagination: (South 1972:23,27, 1977:14–173, 1978a, 1978b) or South (1972:23,27, 1977:14–173, 1978a, 1978b).

Two or more references by the same author or authors in the same year: Organize chronologically, then alphabetically by title in the References, and cite as (Barber 1907c; Kelso 1993a, 1993b, 1993c) or Barber (1907c) and Kelso (1993a, 1993b, 1993c).

Two or more references by the same author or authors, both as author and as editor, in the same year: (Rose 1985a, 1985b) or Rose (1985a, 1985b) in the text, but list them separately in the References with the author citation (1985a) preceding the editor citation (1985b).

Citation with pages, tables, or figures specified: Leave no space between colon and pagination and cite full page references: Archives Départmentales de la Gironde 1584:449–450; McKearin and McKearin 1948:plate 22; Hall 1969:184–197; Schuyler 1974:17,21; South 1977:chapter 4; Kehoe 1978:21,64, figures 5,12; Otto 1984:table 2; Adams and Boling 1989:82, table 4, figure 9a,b. When several categories are present, cite in the order of [volume,] pages or folios, chapters, tables, and figures.

Refer to the SHA manual for more complicated cases.




Ferguson, Leland

1992 Uncommon Ground: An Archaeology of Early African America 1650–1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.


Cotter, John L., Daniel G. Roberts, and Michael Parrington

1992 The Buried Past: An Archaeological History of Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.


Rose, Jerome C. (editor)

1985b Gone to a Better Land. Arkansas Archeological Research Series, No. 25. Fayetteville.


Deetz, James

1996 In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life, expanded and revised from 1977 edition. Doubleday, New York, NY.


Fagan, Brian M.

1988 In the Beginning: An Introduction to Archaeology, 6th edition. Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown, Boston, MA.


United States Bureau of the Census

1936 United States Census of Agriculture: 1935, Vol. 1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.


Book Chapters:


Rose, Jerome C.

1985a Cedar Grove and Black American History. In Gone to a Better Land, Jerome C. Rose, editor, pp. 146–152. Arkansas Archeological Research Series, No. 25. Fayetteville.




Reitz, Elizabeth J.

1986 Urban/Rural Contrasts in Vertebrate Fauna from the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Historical Archaeology 20(2):47–58.


Smith, Marvin T.

1983 Chronology from Glass Beads. In Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference, Charles Hayes III, editor, pp. 147–148. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Research Records, No. 16. Rochester, NY.


Ogden, Peter Skene

1909 Peter Skene Ogden’s Snake Country Journal, 1825–1826. Quarterly of the Oregon

Historical Society 10(4). American Mountain Men <http://www.xmission.com/~drudy/

mtman/htmi/ogdn2526.html>. Accessed 29 November 2006.


Joseph, J.W.

2004 Resistance and Compliance: CRM and the Archaeology of the African Diaspora. In Transcending Boundaries, Transforming the Discipline: African Diaspora Archaeologies in the New Millenium, Maria Franklin and Larry McKee, editors. Thematic issue, Historical Archaeology 38(1):18–31.